Artfact cannot guarantee the accuracy of translations through Google Translate and disclaims any responsibility for inaccurate translations.
October 11, 2012
Paris, FranceLive Auction
Lot 2: BALZAC (Honoré de). Le Dernier Chouan ou la Bretagne en 1800. Paris, Urbain Canel, 1829. 4 volumes in-12, demi maroquin à long grain rouge avec coins, dos lisse orné en long, non rogné (Devauchelle).(22 views)
BALZAC (Honoré de).
Le Dernier Chouan ou la Bretagne en 1800.
Paris, Urbain Canel, 1829.
4 volumes in-12, demi maroquin à long grain rouge avec coins, dos lisse orné en long, non rogné (Devauchelle).
Rare édition originale de la première aeuvre signée de Balzac.
Fine reliure pastiche de Devauchelle.
De rares feuillets réparés en marge.
19th-century French literature concerns the developments in French literature during a dynamic period in French history that saw the rise of Democracy and the fitful end of Monarchy and Empire. The period covered spans the following political regimes: Napoleon Bonaparte's Consulate (1799-1804) and Empire (1804-1814), the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814-1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe d'Orléans (1830-1848), the Second Republic (1848-1852), the Second Empire under Napoleon III (1852-1871), and the first decades of the Third Republic (1871-1940).
French literature enjoyed enormous international prestige and success in the 19th century, though the dominant position it had in Europe in 1800 was gradually eroded by other languages. The first part of the century was dominated by Romanticism, until around the mid-century Realism emerged, at least partly as a reaction. In the last half of the century, "naturalism", "parnassian" poetry, and "symbolism", among other styles, were often competing tendencies at the same time. Some writers did form into literary groups defined by a name and a program or manifesto. In other cases, these expressions were merely pejorative terms given by critics to certain writers or have been used by modern literary historians to group writers of divergent projects or methods. Nevertheless, these labels can be useful in describing broad historical developments in the arts.
French literature from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, which is associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Gérard de Nerval, Charles Nodier, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier and Alfred de Vigny. Their influence was felt in theatre, poetry, prose fiction. The effect of the romantic movement would continue to be felt in the latter half of the century in diverse literary developments, such as "realism", "symbolism", and the so-called fin de siècle "decadent" movement.
French romanticism used forms such as the historical novel, the romance, the "roman noir" or Gothic novel; subjects like traditional myths (including the myth of the romantic hero), nationalism, the natural world (i.e. elegies by lakes), and the common man; and the styles of lyricism, sentimentalism, exoticism and orientalism. Foreign influences played a big part in this, especially those of Shakespeare, Sir Walter Scott, Byron, Goethe, and Friedrich Schiller. French Romanticism had ideals diametrically opposed to French classicism and the classical unities, but it could also express a profound loss for aspects of the pre-revolutionary world in a society now dominated by money and fame, rather than honor.
Key ideas from early French Romanticism:
"La vague des passions" (vagueness, uncertainty of sentiment and passion): Chateaubriand maintained that while the imagination was rich, the world was cold and empty, and rationalism and civilization had only robbed men of their illusions; nevertheless, a notion of sentiment and passion continued to haunt men.
"Le mal du siècle" (the pain of the century): a sense of loss, disillusion, and aporia, typified by melancholy and lassitude.
Romanticism in England and Germany largely predate French romanticism, although there was a kind of "pre-romanticism" in the works of Senancour and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (among others) at the end of the 18th century. French Romanticism took definite form in the works of François-René de Chateaubriand and Benjamin Constant and in Madame de Staël's interpretation of Germany as the land of romantic ideals. It found early expression also in the sentimental poetry of Alphonse de Lamartine.
The major battles of romanticism in France was in the theater. The early years of the century were marked by a revival of classicism and classical-inspired tragedies, often with themes of national sacrifice or patriotic heroism in keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, but the production of Victor Hugo's Hernani in 1830 marked the triumph of the romantic movement on the stage (a description of the turbulent opening night can be found in Théophile Gautier). The dramatic unities of time and place were abolished, tragic and comic elements appeared together and metrical freedom was won. Marked by the plays of Friedrich Schiller, the romantics often chose subjects from historic periods (the French Renaissance, the reign of Louis XIII of France) and doomed noble characters (rebel princes and outlaws) or misunderstood artists (Vigny's play based on the life of Thomas Chatterton).Victor Hugo was the outstanding genius of the Romantic School and its recognized leader. He was prolific alike in poetry, drama, and fiction. Other writers associated with the movement were the austere and pessimistic Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier a devotee of beauty and creator of the "Art for art's sake" movement, and Alfred de Musset, who best exemplifies romantic melancholy. All three also wrote novels and short stories, and Musset won a belated success with his plays. Alexandre Dumas, père wrote The Three Musketeers and other romantic novels in an historical setting. Prosper Mérimée and Charles Nodier were masters of shorter fiction. Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, a literary critic, showed romantic expansiveness in his hospitality to all ideas and in his unfailing endeavour to understand and interpret authors rather than to judge them.
Romanticism is associated with a number of literary salons and groups: the Arsenal (formed around Charles Nodier at the Arsenal Library in Paris from 1824-1844 where Nodier was administrator), the Cénacle (formed around Nodier, then Hugo from 1823-1828), the salon of Louis Charles Delescluze, the salon of Antoine (or Antony) Deschamps, the salon of Madame de Staël.Romanticism in France defied political affiliation: one finds both "liberal" (like Stendhal), "conservative" (like Chateaubriand) and socialist (George Sand) strains.
The expression "Realism", when applied to literature of the 19th century, implies the attempt to depict contemporary life and society. The growth of realism is linked to the development of science (especially biology), history and the social sciences and to the growth of industrialism and commerce. The "realist" tendency is not necessarily anti-romantic; romanticism in France often affirmed the common man and the natural setting, as in the peasant stories of George Sand, and concerned itself with historical forces and periods, as in the work of historian Jules Michelet.
The novels of Stendhal, including The Red and the Black and The Charterhouse of Parma, address issues of their contemporary society while also using themes and characters derived from the romantic movement. Honoré de Balzac is the most prominent representative of 19th century realism in fiction. His La Comédie humaine, a vast collection of nearly 100 novels, was the most ambitious scheme ever devised by a writer of fiction-nothing less than a complete contemporary history of his countrymen. Realism also appears in the works of Alexandre Dumas, fils.
Many of the novels in this period, including Balzac's, were published in newspapers in serial form, and the immensely popular realist "roman feuilleton" tended to specialize in portraying the hidden side of urban life (crime, police spies, criminal slang), as in the novels of Eugène Sue. Similar tendencies appeared in the theatrical melodramas of the period and, in an even more lurid and gruesome light, in the Grand Guignol at the end of the century.
Gustave Flaubert's great novels Madame Bovary (1857)-which reveals the tragic consequences of romanticism on the wife of a provincial doctor-and Sentimental Education represent perhaps the highest stages in the development of French realism, while Flaubert's romanticism is apparent in his fantastic The Temptation of Saint Anthony and the baroque and exotic scenes of ancient Carthage in Salammbô.
In addition to melodramas, popular and bourgeois theater in the mid-century turned to realism in the "well-made" bourgeois farces of Eugène Marin Labiche and the moral dramas of Émile Augier.
From the 1860s on, critics increasingly speak of literary "Naturalism". The expression is imprecise, and was frequently used disparagingly to characterize authors whose chosen subject matter was taken from the working classes and who portrayed the misery and harsh conditions of real life. Many of the "naturalist" writers took a radical position against the excesses of romanticism and strove to use scientific and encyclopedic precision in their novels (Zola spent months visiting gold mines for his Germinal, and even the arch-realist Flaubert was famous for his years of research for historical details). Hippolyte Taine supplied much of the philosophy of naturalism: he believed that every human being was determined by the forces of heredity and environment and by the time in which he lived. The influence of certain Norwegian, Swedish and Russian writers gave an added impulse to the naturalistic movement.
The novels and short stories of Guy de Maupassant are often tagged with the label "naturalist", although he clearly followed the realist model of his teacher and mentor, Flaubert. Maupassant used elements derived from the gothic novel in stories like Le Horla. This tension between portrayal of the contemporary world in all its sordidness, detached irony and the use of romantic images and themes would also influence the symbolists (see below) and would continue to the 20th century.
Naturalism is most often associated with the novels of Emile Zola in particular his Les Rougon-Macquart novel cycle, which includes Germinal, L'Assommoir, Nana, Le Ventre de Paris, La Bête humaine, and L'Œuvre (The Masterpiece), in which the social success or failure of two branches of a family is explained by physical, social and hereditary laws. Other writers who have been labeled naturalists include: Alphonse Daudet, Jules Vallès, Joris-Karl Huysmans (later a leading "decadent" and rebel against naturalism ), Edmond de Goncourt and his brother Jules de Goncourt, and (in a very different vein) Paul Bourget.
An attempt to be objective[clarification needed] was made in poetry by the group of writers known as the Parnassians-which included Leconte de Lisle, Théodore de Banville, Catulle Mendès, Sully-Prudhomme, François Coppée, José María de Heredia and (early in his career) Paul Verlaine-who (using Théophile Gautier's notion of art for art's sake and the pursuit of the beautiful) strove for exact and faultless workmanship, and selected exotic and classical subjects which they treated with a rigidity of form and an emotional detachment (elements of which echo the philosophical work of Arthur Schopenhauer whose aesthetic theories would also have an influence on the symbolists).
Modern science and geography were united with romantic adventure in the works of Jules Verne and other writers of popular serial adventure novels and early science-fiction.
The naturalist tendency to see life without illusions and to dwell on its more depressing and sordid aspects appears in an intensified degree in the immensely influential poetry of Charles Baudelaire, but with profoundly romantic elements derived from the Byronic myth of the anti-hero and the romantic poet, and the world-weariness of the "mal du siècle", etc. Similar elements occur in the novels of Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly.
The poetry of Baudelaire and much of the literature in the latter half of the century (or "fin de siècle") were often characterized as "decadent" for their lurid content or moral vision. In a similar vein, Paul Verlaine used the expression "poète maudit" ("accursed poet") in 1884 to refer to a number of poets like Tristan Corbière, Stéphane Mallarmé and Arthur Rimbaud who had fought against poetic conventions and suffered social rebuke or had been ignored by the critics. But with the publication of Jean Moréas Symbolist Manifesto in 1886, it was the term symbolism which was most often applied to the new literary environment.
The writers Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine, Paul Valéry, Joris-Karl Huysmans, Arthur Rimbaud, Jules Laforgue, Jean Moréas, Gustave Kahn, Albert Samain, Jean Lorrain, Rémy de Gourmont, Pierre Louÿs, Tristan Corbière, Henri de Régnier, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Stuart Merrill, René Ghil, Saint-Pol-Roux, Oscar-Vladislas de Milosz, Albert Giraud, Emile Verhaeren, Georges Rodenbach and Maurice Maeterlinck and others have been called symbolists, although each author's personal literary project was unique.
The symbolists often share themes that parallel Schopenhauer's aesthetics and notions of will, fatality and unconscious forces. The symbolists often used themes of sex (such as prostitutes), the city, irrational phenomena (delirium, dreams, narcotics, alcohol), and sometimes a vaguely medieval setting. The tone of symbolism is highly variable, at times realistic, imaginative, ironic or detached, although on the whole the symbolists did not stress moral or ethical ideas. In poetry, the symbolist procedure-as typified by Paul Verlaine-was to use subtle suggestion instead of precise statement (rhetoric was banned) and to evoke moods and feelings by the magic of words and repeated sounds and the cadence of verse (musicality) and metrical innovation. Some symbolists explored the use of free verse. The use of leitmotifs, medieval settings and the notion of the complete work of art (blending music, visuals and language) in the works of the German composer Richard Wagner also had a profound impact on these writers.Stéphane Mallarmé's profound interest in the limits of language as an attempt at describing the world, and his use of convoluted syntax, and in his last major poem Un coup de dés, the spacing, size and position of words on the page were important modern breakthroughs that continue to preoccupy contemporary poetry in France.
Arthur Rimbaud's prose poem collection Illuminations are among the first free verse poems in French; his biographically inspired poem Une saison en enfer (A Season in Hell) was championed by the Surrealists as a revolutionary modern literary act (the same work would play an important role in the New York punk scene in the 1970s). The infernal images of the prose poem "Les Chants de Maldoror" by Isidore Ducasse, Comte de Lautréamont would have a similar impact.
The crisis of language and meaning in Mallarmé and the radical vision of literature, life and the political world in Rimbaud are to some degree the cornerstones of the "modern" and the radical experiments of Dada, Surrealism and Theatre of the Absurd (to name a few) in the 20th century.
Terms and ConditionsOpen in separate window
By submitting your bid, you agree that:
- You agree to pay a buyer's premium of up to 23% and any applicable taxes and shipping.‡
Conditions of Sale
CONDITIONS OF PURCHASE
ALDE is an auction sales company, regulated by the law dated July 10, 2000, with a capital of 10 000 €, registered in Paris. In such capacity ALDE acts as the agent of the seller who contracts with the buyer. The relationships between ALDE and the buyer are subject to the present general conditions of purchase which can be modified by saleroom notices or oral indications given at the time of the sale, which will be recorded in the official sale record.
1 - Goods for auction
a) The prospective buyers are invited to examine any goods in which they may be interested, before the auction takes place, and notably during the exhibitions. ALDE is at disposal of the prospective buyers to provide them with reports about the conditions of lots.
b) The statements by made ALDE about any restoration, mishap or harm arisen concerning the lot are only made to facilitate the inspection thereof by the prospective buyer and remain subject to his own or to his expert's appreciation. The absence of statements ALDE by relating to a restoration, mishap or harm, whether made in the catalogue, condition reports, on labels or orally, does not imply that the item is exempt from any current, past or repaired defect. Inversely, the indication of any defect whatsoever does not imply the absence of any other defects.
2 - The sale
a) In order to assure the proper organisation of the sales, prospective buyers are invited to make themselves known to ALDE before the sale, so as to have their personal identity data recorded.
b) Any person who is a bidder undertakes to pay personally and immediately the hammer price increased by the premium and any which could be due. Any bidder is deemed acting on his own behalf except when prior notification, accepted by ALDE, is given that he acts as an agent on behalf of a third party.
c) ALDE may graciously accept to receive some bids by telephone from a prospective buyer who has expressed such a request before the sale, as long as the estimate of the lot is higher than 300 €.
ALDE will bear no responsability, notably if the telephone contact is not made, or if it is made too late, or in case of mistakes or omissions relating to the reception of the telephone. For variety of purposes, ALDE reserves its right to record all the telephone communications during the auction. Such records shall be kept until the complete payment of the auction price, except claims.
d) ALDE may accept to execute orders to bid which will have been submitted before the sale and by ALDE which have been deemed acceptable. Should ALDE receive several instructions to bid for the same amounts, it is the instruction to bid first received, which will be given preference. ALDE will bear no liability/responsibility in case of mistakes or omission of performance of the written order.
e) In the event where a reserve price has been stipulated by the seller, ALDE reserves the right to bid on behalf of the seller until the reserve price is reached. The seller will not be admitted to bid himself directly or through an agent.
The reserve price may not be higher than the low estimate of the lot printed in the catalogue.
f) ALDE will conduct auction sales at their discretion, in accordance with established practices.
ALDE reserves the right to refuse any bid, to organise the bidding in such manner as may be the most appropriate, to move some lots in the course of the sale, to withdraw any lot in the course of the sale, to combine or to divide some lots in the course of the sale.
In case of challenge or dispute, ALDE reserves the right to designate the successful bidder, to continue the bidding or to cancel it, or to put the lot back up for bidding.
g) Subject to the decision of the person conducting the bidding for ALDE, the successful bidder will be the bidder would will have made the highest bid provided the final bid is equal to or higher than the reserve price if such a reserve price has been stipulated. The pronouncing of the word "adjugé" or any equivalent will amount to the conclusion of the purchase contract between the seller and the last bidder taken in consideration. No lot will be delivered to the buyer until full payment has been made.
In case of payment by an ordinary draft/check, payment will be deemed made only when the check will have been cashed.
3 - The incidents of the sale
a) In case two bidders have bidden vocally, by mean of gesture or by telephone for the same amount and both claim title to the lot, after the bidding the lot, will immediately be offered again for sale at the previous last bid, and all those attending will be entitled to bid again.
b) So as to facilitate the presentation of the items during the sales, ALDE will be able to use video technology. Should any error occur in operation of such, which may lead to show an item during the bidding which is not the one on which the bids have been made, ALDE shall bear no responsability whatsoever, and will have sole discretion to decide whether or not the bidding will take place again.
c) So as to facilitate the price calculation for prospective buyers, a currency converter may be operated by ALDE as guidance. Nevertheless, the bidding cannot be made in foreign currency and ALDE will not be liable for errors of conversion.
4 - Pre-emption of the French state
The French state in entitled to use a right of pre-emption on works of art, pursuant to the laws dated December 31, 1921 and July 10, 2000. The use of this right comes immediately after the hammer stroke, the representative of the French state expressing then the intention of the State to substitute for the last bidder, provided he confirms the pre-emption decision within fifteen days.
5 - The performance of the sale
a) In addition of the lot's hammer price, the buyer must pay the following premium and fees/taxes:
1) Lots from the EEC: 20%
2) Lots from outside the EEC : In addition to the commissions and taxes indicated above, an additional import VAT will be charged (7% of the hammer price).
The taxes (VAT on commissions and VAT on importation) can be retroceded to the purchaser on presentation of written proof of exportation outside the EEC. An EEC purchaser who will submit his intra-Community VAT number will be exempted from paying the VAT on commissions.
The payment of the lot will be made cash, for the whole of the price, costs and taxes, even when an export licence is required. The purchaser will be authorized to pay by the following means :
in cash: up to 3 000 euros, costs and taxes included, for French citizen, up to 7 600 euros, costs and taxes included, for foreign citizen on presentation of their documents.
By cheque or bank transfer.
By credit card : VISA.
b) ALDE will be authorized to reproduce in the official sale record and on the bid summary the information that the buyer will have provided before the sale. The buyer will be responsible for any false information given. Should the buyer have neglected to give his personal information before the sale, he will have to give the necessary information as soon as the sale of the lot has taken place.
Any person having been recorded by ALDE has a right of access and of rectification to the nominative data provided to ALDE pursuant to the provisions of the Law dated July 6, 1978.
c) The lot must to be insured by the buyer immediately after the purchase. The buyer will have no recourse against ALDE in the event where, due to a theft, a loss or a deterioration of his lot after the purchase, the compensation he will receive from the insurer of ALDE would be unsufficient.
d) The lot will be delivered to the buyer only after the entire payment of the price, costs and taxes.
In the meantime ALDE may invoice to the buyer the costs of storage of the lot, and if applicable the costs of handling and transport.
Should the buyer fail to pay the amount due, and after notice to pay has been given by ALDE to the buyer without success, at the seller's request, the lot is re-offered for sale, under the French procedure known as "procédure de folle enchère". If the seller does not make this request within a month from the date of the sale, the sale will be automatically cancelled, without prejudice to any damages owed by the defaulting buyer.
In addition, ALDE reserves the right to claim against the defaulting buyer, at their option:
interest at the legal rate increased by five points,
the reimbursement of additional costs generated by the buyer's default,
the payment of the difference between the initial hammer price and the price of sale after "procédure de folle enchère" if it is inferior as well as the costs generated by the new auction.
ALDE also reserves the right to set off any amount ALDE may owe the defaulting buyer with the amounts to be paid by the defaulting buyer. ALDE reserves the right to exclude from any future auction, any bidder who has been a defaulting buyer or who has not fulfilled these general conditions of purchase.
e) For items purchased which are not collected within seven days from after the sale (Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays included), ALDE will be authorized to move them into a storage place at the defaulting buyer's expense, and to release them to same after payment of corresponding costs, in addition to the price, costs and taxes.
Crédit du Nord
21, rue de Vaugirard 75006 Paris
Banque Agence N° de compte Clef RIB
30076 02033 17905006000 92
IBAN : FR76 3007 6020 3317 9050 0600 092
Additional Upcoming Lots(view more)
October 11, 2012
7 rue Rossini
Paris, 75009 France